Sunday, 22 January 2012

Special senses

First listen to the presentation: special senses

1. In addition to sight what are the four other special senses?

ANSWER: hearing, smell, taste, touch

2. What four structures of the eye does light pass through to reach the retina?

ANSWER: cornea; aqueous humour; lens; vitreous humour

3. What four types of light do the pigments in the photoreceptor cells (rod and cones) detect?

ANSWER: red; green; blue; monchorome

4. What is the first structure that a sound wave comes into contact with when it passes through the external ear, and what are the three ossicles of the ear called?

ANSWER: ear drum (tympanic membrane); maleus, incus, stapes

5. What do the four sense organs of the skin sense?

ANSWER: touch; pain; heat; pressure

6. Which part of the tongue sense taste? What are the three tastes?

ANSWER: taste buds; sweet, sour, salty

Sunday, 8 January 2012


First listen to the presentation: Protection

1. In addition to injury and poisoning what else do we require protection from?

ANSWER: oxygen; heat; dehydration; infection.

2. Where are the symptoms of oxygen toxicity manifested?

ANSWER: eyes; lungs; brain; muscles.

3. In a reflex arc what is the correct order for: spinal cord; motor neurone; muscle; sensory neurone?

ANSWER: sensory neurone; spinal cord; motor neurone; muscle.

4. Name four things that can stimulate vomiting centre.

ANSWER: higher brain centres; chemicals; labyrinths; stomach.

5. What four things does the skin protect against?

ANSWER: physical damage; infection; dehydration; extremes of heat.

6. How is heat lost from the body?

ANSWER: radiation; convection; conduction; evaporation.

7. Name the three stages of wound healing and in the correct order?

ANSWER: inflammation; proliferation; maturation.

8. Briefly describe blood clotting.

ANSWER: Prothrombin activator formed by intrinsic and extrinsic systems, converts prothrombin to thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin which forms a clot with platelets.

9. What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?

ANSWER: redness; heat; pain; swelling.

10. Name the components of non-specific and specific defence systems.

ANSWER: skin & macrophages (non-specific); cell mediated immunity & antigen mediated immunity (specific).

11. Describe active and passive immunity.

ANSWER: Active - natural (having a subclinical disease or infection), artificial (vaccine & toxoids); Passive - natural (from mother), artificial (antibodies).