Sunday, 8 January 2012


First listen to the presentation: Protection

1. In addition to injury and poisoning what else do we require protection from?

ANSWER: oxygen; heat; dehydration; infection.

2. Where are the symptoms of oxygen toxicity manifested?

ANSWER: eyes; lungs; brain; muscles.

3. In a reflex arc what is the correct order for: spinal cord; motor neurone; muscle; sensory neurone?

ANSWER: sensory neurone; spinal cord; motor neurone; muscle.

4. Name four things that can stimulate vomiting centre.

ANSWER: higher brain centres; chemicals; labyrinths; stomach.

5. What four things does the skin protect against?

ANSWER: physical damage; infection; dehydration; extremes of heat.

6. How is heat lost from the body?

ANSWER: radiation; convection; conduction; evaporation.

7. Name the three stages of wound healing and in the correct order?

ANSWER: inflammation; proliferation; maturation.

8. Briefly describe blood clotting.

ANSWER: Prothrombin activator formed by intrinsic and extrinsic systems, converts prothrombin to thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin which forms a clot with platelets.

9. What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?

ANSWER: redness; heat; pain; swelling.

10. Name the components of non-specific and specific defence systems.

ANSWER: skin & macrophages (non-specific); cell mediated immunity & antigen mediated immunity (specific).

11. Describe active and passive immunity.

ANSWER: Active - natural (having a subclinical disease or infection), artificial (vaccine & toxoids); Passive - natural (from mother), artificial (antibodies).

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