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Sunday, 24 April 2011

From cells to system

First, listen to the presentation: From cells to systems

 1. Levels of organisation
What are the four levels of organisation between organelle and organism?
Answer: cell; tissue; organ; system.

2. Anatomical planes
Name the three planes through which the body can be viewed and if you were looking down on top view of, eg a slice of the brain, which plane would this be?
Answer: saggital, coronal and transverse; transverse.

3. Anatomical directions
Describe: the position of the legs relative to the head (while standing); the elbow relative to the hand; the scaplulae (shoulder blades) relative to the sternum (breatbone) and the nose relative to the ears.
Answer: inferior; proximal; posterior; medial.

4. The cell
Which structure surrounds and contains the cell?
Which structure contains the chromosomes?
Which structure is the 'power house' of the cell?
What substance are all the structure of the cell contained in?
Answer: plasma membrane; nucleus; mitochondrion; cytoplasm (click on the diagram to see all the labels).

5. Types of tissues
Name the four main tissue types.
Answer: nervous; muscle, connective, epithelial.

6. Epithelial tissue by layers
Name the three classifications of epithelial tissue by layers.  Of which type is the skin an example?
Answer: simple; stratified; pseudostratified. Stratified.

7. Epithelial tissue by cell shape
What are the three classifications of epithelial tissue by cell shape.  Of which type is the skin an example?
Answer: squamous; cuboidal; columnar. Squamous

8. Systems
Which systems contain the following:
brain and nerves
heart and blood vessels
muscles and bones
stomach and intestines
Answer: nervous system; cardiovascular system; skeletomuscular system; gastrointestinal system.

9. Osmosis
Describe osmosis.

Answer: The movement of water from a region of high concentration of water to a region of lower concentration of water through a semi-permeable membrane.

10. Diffusion
Compare and contrast diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport.
Answer: Diffusion only works down a concentration gradient; facilitated diffusion takes place across membranes at specific carrier sites but only down a concentration gradient; active transport takes place across membranes at specific carrier sites but works against a concentration gradient and requires energy in the form of ATP (click on the diagram to see an animation).