Sunday, 22 January 2012

Special senses

First listen to the presentation: special senses

1. In addition to sight what are the four other special senses?

ANSWER: hearing, smell, taste, touch

2. What four structures of the eye does light pass through to reach the retina?

ANSWER: cornea; aqueous humour; lens; vitreous humour

3. What four types of light do the pigments in the photoreceptor cells (rod and cones) detect?

ANSWER: red; green; blue; monchorome

4. What is the first structure that a sound wave comes into contact with when it passes through the external ear, and what are the three ossicles of the ear called?

ANSWER: ear drum (tympanic membrane); maleus, incus, stapes

5. What do the four sense organs of the skin sense?

ANSWER: touch; pain; heat; pressure

6. Which part of the tongue sense taste? What are the three tastes?

ANSWER: taste buds; sweet, sour, salty

Sunday, 8 January 2012


First listen to the presentation: Protection

1. In addition to injury and poisoning what else do we require protection from?

ANSWER: oxygen; heat; dehydration; infection.

2. Where are the symptoms of oxygen toxicity manifested?

ANSWER: eyes; lungs; brain; muscles.

3. In a reflex arc what is the correct order for: spinal cord; motor neurone; muscle; sensory neurone?

ANSWER: sensory neurone; spinal cord; motor neurone; muscle.

4. Name four things that can stimulate vomiting centre.

ANSWER: higher brain centres; chemicals; labyrinths; stomach.

5. What four things does the skin protect against?

ANSWER: physical damage; infection; dehydration; extremes of heat.

6. How is heat lost from the body?

ANSWER: radiation; convection; conduction; evaporation.

7. Name the three stages of wound healing and in the correct order?

ANSWER: inflammation; proliferation; maturation.

8. Briefly describe blood clotting.

ANSWER: Prothrombin activator formed by intrinsic and extrinsic systems, converts prothrombin to thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin which forms a clot with platelets.

9. What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?

ANSWER: redness; heat; pain; swelling.

10. Name the components of non-specific and specific defence systems.

ANSWER: skin & macrophages (non-specific); cell mediated immunity & antigen mediated immunity (specific).

11. Describe active and passive immunity.

ANSWER: Active - natural (having a subclinical disease or infection), artificial (vaccine & toxoids); Passive - natural (from mother), artificial (antibodies).

Sunday, 4 December 2011

The skeletomuscular system

First listen to the presentation: The skeletomuscular system

1. What four tissues does a long bone consist of?

ANSWER: subchondral; cancellous; compact; marrow.

2. How many bones are there in the adult skeleton? What are the two major divisions of the skeleton and which mineral is found in bones?

ANSWER: 206; axial & appendicular; calcium phosphate.

3. Name two parts of the axial skeleton and two parts of the appendicular skeleton.

ANSWER: axial: skull, spine, ribs; appendicular: pelvis, shoulders (clavicles and scapulae); limbs.

4. Excluding the jaws and other small bones, name the four largest bones of the skull that enclose the cranium.

ANSWER: frontal; parietal; temporal; occiptal.

5. In addition to the coccyx, what are the four regions of the spine, in order, from the top?

ANSWER: cervical; thoracic; lumbar; sacral.

6. What does a joint do and name the three types?

ANSWER: allows movement (articulation) between bones; fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial.

7. In addition to the hinge joint, name four other types of synovial joint.

ANSWER: pivot; condylar; plane; ball & socket.

8. What are the four movements of an angular joint?

ANSWER: flexion; extension; abduction; adduction.

9. Name the three types of muscle; which one is also described as 'striped' or 'striated'?

ANSWER: skeletal; cardiac; smooth. Skeletal is striped or striated.

10. What are the two types of contractile protein and where are they contained? What is used in the process of contraction?

ANSWER: actin; myosin. Muscle fibre or cells. ATP/Energy.

11. Describe what happens at a neuromuscular junction.

ANSWER: An action potential is transmitted to the muscle via a motor nerve; the electrical signal is transmitted to the muscle chemically (acetyl choline) across the gap between the nerve and the muscle; an action potential is generated in the muscle; the acetyl choline is broken down and/or taken back up into the nerve ending.

12. What are the ends of a skeletal muscle called where it joins to the skeleton?  What joins the muscle to the bone and what is it made of?

ANSWER: Origin and insertion; tendon, made of collagen.

13. Which two muscles of the arm control the movement of the lower arm? How would you describe the relative position of these muscles and which one is responsible for extending the arm?

ANSWER: bicep & tricep; opposing; tricep.

Tuesday, 4 October 2011

Gastrointestinal system

First listen to the presentation: The gastrointestinal system

Structure and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system

1. Describe the GI system.

Answer: The GI system runs from the mouth to the anus and is responsible for the digestion of food and the excretion of waste products.

2. What are the four main regions of the GI tract between mouth and anus?

Answer: oesophagus; stomach; large intestine; small intestine.

3. Name four organs/structures that are linked to the GI tract.

Answer: liver; pancreas; gall bladder; appendix.

4. Describe the peritoneum and what is the space that it encloses called?

Answer: transparent membrane; lines the abdominal cavity; carries nerves and blood vessels to viscera; peritoneal cavity.

5. What kind of muscle is found in the GI tract, how is it arranged and how is it controlled?

Answer: smooth muscle; longitudinal and circular; autonomic nervous system.

6. What is the process that moves food along the GI tract? Describe this process.

Answer: peristalsis: waves of contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle which propel food along the GI tract.

7. What is the space in the GI tract called and what is the lining of the GI tract called? What are the two functions of  the lining?

Answer: lumen; mucosa. Secretory and absorbtive.

8. Name the three pairs of salivary glands. What is the MAIN function of saliva?

Answer: parotid; sumandibular; sublingual. Lubrication of food.

9. What is mastication? In addition to saliva what other parts of the mouth are involved? What is the end product of mastication?

Answer: chewing. Tongue & teeth. Bolus of food.

10. What are the muscles of mastication? Which joint is involved and what is unique about it?

Answer: masseter & temporalis. Temperomandibular joint; allows movement in three planes.

11. In the process of swallowing, which tube does the bolus of food enter on its way to the stomach?  Which tube is protected by the epiglottis and what is the epiglottis? How is the bolus of food moved to the stomach?

Answer: the oesophagus. The trachea. a flap of cartilage. Peristalsis.

12. What are the functions of the stomach?

ANSWER: it acts as a reservoir; it completes the mechanical breakdown of food; it secretes hydrochoric acid; it produced chyme.

13. What are the three muscle layers of the stomach and what are the convolutions on the inner surface of the stomach called?

ANSWER: circular; longitinal; oblique; rugae.

14. In addition to gastrin and intrinsic factor what other three things are produced by the gastric pits and what is setreted by the gastric pits?

ANSWER: mucous; hydrochloric acid; pepsin. Parietal cells produce hydrochloric acid.

15. State the three regions of the small intestine in the correct order.

ANSWER: duodenum; jejunum; ileum.

16. What are the functions of the small intestine?

ANSWER: it mixes food by segmentation; it propels food by persitalsis; it secretes digestive enzymes and mucous; it absorbs nutrients.

17. What features of the lining of the small intestine provide it with a large surface area? What are the three groups of enzymes (ie in terms of what they digest) that are secreted into the small intestine?

ANSWER: villi; protein digesing, carbohydrate digesting, fat digesting enzymes.

18. Where do pancreatic secretions enter the duodenum? In addition to sodium bicarbonate what digestive enzymes are produced by the pancreas?

ANSWER: the ampulla of Vater; trypsin, amylase and lipase.

19. Where is bile made? What does the gall bladder do? Where is bile released into the duodenum? What does bile do?

ANSWER: liver; stores and concentrates bile; ampulla of Vater; emulsifying agent.

20. Describe digestion.

ANSWER: a process of breaking large molecules into smaller ones which can be absorbed from the intestine and used in metabolism.

21. What do enzymes do? What are the three phases of digestion?

ANSWER: they act as catalysts for biological reactions; cephalic, gastric, intestinal.

22. What are the three phases of digestion - in the correct order?

ANSWER: cephalic; gastric; intestinal.

23. What is mainly reabsorbed in the large intestine and what are the three major regions of the large intestine?

ANSWER: Water; ascending, transverse and descending colon.

24. What are the three types of movement in the large intestine and which bacterium is mainly found here?

ANSWER: peristalsis; haustral churning; mass movement. E coli.

25. Describe the structure and function of the internal and external anal sphincters.

ANSWER: internal - smooth muscle and involuntary; external - skeletal muscle and voluntary.