Structure and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system
1. Describe the GI system.
mouth to the anus and is responsible for the digestion of food and the excretion of waste products.
2. What are the four main regions of the GI tract between mouth and anus?
3. Name four organs/structures that are linked to the GI tract.
4. Describe the peritoneum and what is the space that it encloses called?
5. What kind of muscle is found in the GI tract, how is it arranged and how is it controlled?
6. What is the process that moves food along the GI tract? Describe this process.
7. What is the space in the GI tract called and what is the lining of the GI tract called? What are the two functions of the lining?
8. Name the three pairs of salivary glands. What is the MAIN function of saliva?
9. What is mastication? In addition to saliva what other parts of the mouth are involved? What is the end product of mastication?
10. What are the muscles of mastication? Which joint is involved and what is unique about it?
11. In the process of swallowing, which tube does the bolus of food enter on its way to the stomach? Which tube is protected by the epiglottis and what is the epiglottis? How is the bolus of food moved to the stomach?
12. What are the functions of the stomach?
13. What are the three muscle layers of the stomach and what are the convolutions on the inner surface of the stomach called?
14. In addition to gastrin and intrinsic factor what other three things are produced by the gastric pits and what is setreted by the gastric pits?
15. State the three regions of the small intestine in the correct order.
16. What are the functions of the small intestine?
17. What features of the lining of the small intestine provide it with a large surface area? What are the three groups of enzymes (ie in terms of what they digest) that are secreted into the small intestine?
18. Where do pancreatic secretions enter the duodenum? In addition to sodium bicarbonate what digestive enzymes are produced by the pancreas?
19. Where is bile made? What does the gall bladder do? Where is bile released into the duodenum? What does bile do?
20. Describe digestion.
large molecules into smaller ones which can be absorbed from the intestine and used in metabolism.
21. What do enzymes do? What are the three phases of digestion?
22. What are the three phases of digestion - in the correct order?
23. What is mainly reabsorbed in the large intestine and what are the three major regions of the large intestine?
24. What are the three types of movement in the large intestine and which bacterium is mainly found here?
25. Describe the structure and function of the internal and external anal sphincters.