Sunday, 3 July 2011

The endocrine system

First listen to the presentation: The endocrine system

What the system does

1. In addition to mood and reproduction name four things that the endocrine system controls.

Answer: growth, tissue function, metabolism, sexual development.

The pineal glands

2. What do the pineal glands secrete and what three aspects of the body is this secretion related to?
Answer: Melatonin; sexual development, sleep, metabolism.

The hypothalamus

3. Where is the hypothalamus located; which endocrine gland does it control and in what two ways does the hypothalamus contol this gland?

Answer: below the thalamus; the pituitary; in the blood and via nerves.

The pituitary

4. What is the collective name for the two systems that take chemical and nervous signals to the pituitary and what are the three lobes of the pituitary?

Answer: The hypothalamo-hypophysial tract; the anterior, middle and posterior lobes.

The anterior pituitary seceretions

5. In addition to the gonadotrohins name four other anterior pituitary secretions.

Answer: growth hormone; prolactin; thyroid stimulating hormone; adrenocotocotrophic hormone.

The posterior pituitary

6. What are the two secretions of the posterior pituitary gland and give one function of each.

Answer: oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone; development of mammary glands/contraction of uterus and reabsorbtion of water by the kidneys, respectively.

Adrenal cortical hormones

7. Give three functions of glucocorticoids and one function of aldosterone.

Answer: glucocorticoids - control of glucose metabolism, suppression of inflammation, released in stress; aldosterone -  controls sodium and water uptake.

The thyroid gland

8. What is secreted by the thyroid gland, what does it do and what is overproduction and underproduction of this hormone called, respectively?

Answer: thyroxine; controls metabolism; hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism.

The parathyroid glands

9. What  hormones isreleased by the parathyroid glands and what does it do? Which hormone released by the thyroid gland has the opposite effect?

Answer: parathyroid hormone raised blood calcium levels; calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels.

Adrenal medulla

10. What are the two secretions of the adrenal medulla and name two of their actions.

Answer: adrenaline and noradrenaline; increase heart rate and blood pressure.

The pancreas

11. Name the two secretions of the Islets of Langerhans and what their respective actions are.

Answer: insulin and glucagon; lower and raise blood glucose, respectively.

The gonads

12. Name the female and male gonads and name the secretions of the female gonads.

Answer: ovaries and testes; oestrogen and progesterone.

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